how to improve infrastructure in a country

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Thank you again for the invitation to appear before you today. Despite this low percentage, the NHS accounts for 55 percent of the total vehicle miles travelled (VMT) and over 83 percent of the miles traveled by truck in the country. For example, Alaska signed a CE assignment MOU in September 2009. Alaska, Arizona, and Nebraska are also actively pursuing this opportunity. Transportation infrastructures are challenged by congestion and the need to add capacity and better manage existing infrastructures. The way we live and, crucially, where we live, is changing fast. – Mass-transit systems, including buses, subways (UK: underground trains), elevated trains, etc. Washington, DC 20590855-368-4200. The goal is to increase the total amount of infrastructure investment, while delivering better transportation outcomes for Americans. Congress not only provided formula funds for freight development in the FAST Act, but also created the Nationally Significant Freight and Highway Projects program (that became unofficially known as “FASTLANE”). We hope to broaden and expand participation in infrastructure funding so that more projects can be undertaken overall and so that we do not supplant existing state, local, or private funds already dedicated to infrastructure. In the case of the second set of causes, it is possible to mitigate their effects if the occurrence is frequent, such as accidents, or if the risks are high, such as of flooding. There are flows of people all over the country from around the world in relation to the projects. The President has made clear that modernizing our country’s crumbling infrastructure, including our Nation’s highways and bridges, is one of his top priorities. Congestion is likely to remain one of the ongoing issues in transport geography because there are unprecedented demands for transportation being generated by a global economy that is ever more dependent upon mobility in part due to an increase in living standards. The Department has begun to more fully utilize the tools that Congress incorporated in the last several surface transportation reauthorizations, particularly to improve the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review process. We all know India is one of the countries with rapid growth of the economy and there are estimations that India will be the third economic force in the world by 2050. In addition to ITS JPO, the Department supports several competitive grant programs that encourage and facilitate the deployment of new technologies by our State and local partners. Additionally, in the Consolidated Appropriations Acts for Fiscal Years 2016 and 2017, Congress provided flexibility to allow States to repurpose certain earmarked funds that were over 10 years old and had not been used for their stated purposes, putting previously idle funds to use on critical highway and bridge projects. That kind of growth has allowed the country to initiate investments in the infrastructure made by the private sector, giving them numerous exemptions. ... the provision of adequate rural road infrastructure can be a powerful ally in a country’s attack on poverty and in many countries has become an integral part of public intervention targeted at meeting the basic needs of poor people. AID is one initiative under the multi-faceted Technology and Innovation Deployment Program (TIDP), which was continued by Congress under the FAST Act to provide funding and other resources to offset the risk of implementing an innovation. Receive email updates about the latest in Safety, Innovation, and Infrastructure. Parastatal companies also undertake infrastructure development in some sectors, while other initiatives include the government’s Expanded Public Works Programme, and public-private partnerships. Governments have recognized that infrastructure provisions play a key role in economic uplift which subsequently lessens poverty- thus … Although developed-country TNCs still dominate in infrastructure industries internationally, there has been a marked rise in involvement by developing-country TNCs. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s (NHTSA) projection of traffic fatalities for the first nine months of 2016 shows that an estimated 27,875 people died in motor vehicle traffic crashes, an increase of approximately 8 percent from the same period in 2015. One of the most urgent is how to provid… of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University, New York, USA. The cost to re-purpose may exceed the potential benefit. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Reclamation, and U.S. Forest Service, as well as Tribal Nations. This approach can contribute to significant resource efficiencies and cost savings in the project development process. International trade is likely to continue to be dominated by maritime transport (in terms of weight) and air transport (in terms of value). The world is moving from spacious, green, rural lives to condensed, concrete urban ones. The connectivity among regions and rural community is important to boost economic value. Investment in research is critical to the identification, development, and evaluation of these technology and innovation initiatives. This program has shown measured success, more States are funding projects on local roadways with their Highway Safety Improvement Program dollars, and local agencies are more aware of their roadway safety issues through the development of Local Road Safety Plans, and more local agencies are participating and SHSP development that includes participation from local agencies. In Fiscal Years 2016 and 2017, FHWA has distributed over $2.2 billion in National Highway Freight Program funding to the States by statutory formula. Many of the cost and time savings, and safer technologies and innovations advanced by our State and local partners through AID, were first developed and refined by FHWA at its Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center. These projects are evaluating the reliability, as well as the security, of such technologies and addressing common challenges to implementing use-based fees, including public acceptance, privacy protection, and equity concerns. In the coming decades, particularly in advanced economies, large tracts of transport infrastructure will need to be reconverted to other uses, creating several opportunities for innovation in spatial planning. In 2016, total miles driven on public roads in the U.S. increased for a fifth straight year by 1.65 percent to 3.2 trillion miles. The Report stated that the percentage of Federal-aid highway mileage classified as “acceptable ride quality” (either good or fair quality) decreased from 87.4 percent in 2002 to 80.3 percent in 2012. 8. AID can accelerate the adoption of innovative technologies and new business practices in highway construction. The recently released DOT report, “2015 Status of the Nation’s Highways, Bridges and Transit: Conditions and Performance,” (2015 C&P Report) contains some good news regarding the state of our bridges. Governments have traditionally been the primary source of funding in the transport sector. These include jails, courts, banks, and government – if people are easy corrupted in these institutions, it is nearly impossible to truly serve justice to the people being governed under them. Such a response depended heavily on engineering solutions to design and construct infrastructure and to develop further technological innovations. This grant program provides financial assistance through competitive grants or credit assistance to projects that, for example, improve the safety, efficiency, and reliability of the movement of freight and people; generate national or regional economic benefits and increase our national economic competitiveness; or reduce highway congestion and bottlenecks. Given this trend, it is crucial to work together to find innovative ways to finance highway infrastructure. Today, 3.9 billion do – and that figure is expected to increase by a further 2.5 billionby 2050. Further, the maintenance of transport infrastructure can be subject to different approaches: With the growing unwillingness or inability of the public sector to fund and provide transport infrastructure, new forms of infrastructure provision, maintenance, and operation need to be achieved. (Photo: Chiara Amato / World Bank) Buildings, classrooms, laboratories, and equipment- education infrastructure - are crucial elements of learning environments in schools and universities. These provisions have allowed us to: Additionally, under the Surface Transportation Project Delivery Program, commonly referred to as the NEPA Assignment Program, States can choose to assume the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA) responsibilities for environmental review under NEPA. The challenge becomes how to recover and reuse the existing footprint, which can take many forms. – Pumping stations and levees. They brought the situation under control and evacuated everyone with no loss of life or injuries. – Reservoirs and dams. A country’s sustainable development and economic growth largely depends on affordable and efficient infrastructure provisions. However, increasing capacity engenders a hidden demand, so that adding lanes to an expressway tends to attract even more circulation. The Nation lost 35,092 people in motor vehicle crashes in 2015—an average of 96 deaths per day. Irrespective of the context, the issue of the role of private and public actors in transport infrastructure as well as pricing mechanisms will remain salient: Most transport infrastructure projects are long term but are typified by high capital investment requirements being incurred over a short initial phase for securing land, rights of way, and constructing infrastructure. Second, are the effects on future spatial patterns. But, while bridge conditions are heading in the right direction, the 2015 C&P Report suggests that there is more work to do. His research interests cover transportation and economics as they relate to logistics and global freight distribution. 4. Congress created this program in the FAST Act in order to develop model deployment sites for large scale installation and operation of advanced transportation technologies. – Road & railway systems, tunnels, and bridges. Infrastructure is a term architects, engineers, and urban planners use to describe essential facilities, services, and organizational structures for communal use, most commonly by residents of cities and towns. The infrastructure in Hong Kong is efficient and has promoted economic development to international standards and ensures businesses run efficiently to increase growth. This was important legislation. The Administration’s goal is to seek long-term reforms on how infrastructure projects are regulated, funded, delivered, and maintained. Trucks currently carry 64 percent of the tons and 69 percent of the value of freight moved in the United States. Under the FAST Act, the Department is required to develop a National Freight Strategic Plan, which will identify strategies and best practices for improving intermodal connectivity and performance on the freight system, as well as mitigating the impacts of freight movement on communities. All these sources could be targeted to increase the labour-intensity of the investments in infrastructure development with limited additional costs to society. It is designed to leverage Federal dollars by incentivizing State, local, and non-Federal investment in infrastructure, and it will address infrastructure development in both urban and rural areas in ways that are supportive of a wide range of funding options and sensitive to funding challenges faced by some communities. In addition, there are the foreign loans. This rapid urbanization presents many challenges. There is a whole range of issues arising out of the growth of demand and congestion. As economies of scale are applied to transport systems, such as larger containerships or doublestacked rail corridors, capital requirements increase in proportion. In some industries, such as telecommunications, they have emerged as major players, and in others, such as transport, they have even become world leaders (table 6). A common and attractive solution is to increase capacity. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) include targets to improve water and sanitation infrastructures as well as ICT, recognising their importance for human development. A substantial amount of capital investment will be required to upgrade the system and maintain its operability, including thousands of aging highway bridges. The Department has been implementing the FAST Act changes to TIFIA and the other programs that have been consolidated into the Build America Bureau structure. Eligible projects, such as V2V and V2I communication systems, collision avoidance technologies, integration of intelligent transportation systems with the Smart Grid, and advanced mobility and access technologies, are designed to improve safety, efficiency, system performance, and infrastructure return on investment. Any other uses, such as conference presentations, posting on web sites or consulting reports, are FORBIDDEN. Under the HSIP, States develop and implement comprehensive, data-driven Strategic Highway Safety Plans (SHSPs) that establish statewide safety goals, objectives, and key emphasis areas and integrate the “four Es” of safety—engineering, education, enforcement and emergency medical services. Driven by this projected economic and population growth, freight movements across all modes are expected to grow by roughly 42 percent by the year 2040, making investments in our freight infrastructure a priority. Features of Infrastructure 3. Over this matter, the highways in China and North America represent two salient cases. The FHWA’s local and rural road safety program encompasses training, technical assistance, guidance, and other tools. Working with NHTSA, FHWA has delivered target-setting workshops to more than 1,000 stakeholders in 45 States, including representatives from State DOTs, MPOs, and State Highway Safety Offices. We are examining ways to increase the effectiveness of that program. Investment in infrastructure: 13 billion $ Conventionally, the solution to congestion was to provide more capacity by building more infrastructure. Up to $60 million is available this fiscal year and applications are due next month. The Department continues to implement the congressional directives contained in the FAST Act and MAP-21. But for real development in every sphere to happen, we need to improve our infrastructure. Drivers slowing to avoid poor pavement and bridge conditions can also create congestion, which continues a troubling trend. 5. Table 4-1 illustrates the specific types of measures such an inventory might include.. It takes place in specific locations with impacts at a multitude of scales, from a particular highway intersection that may delay traffic over a few hundred meters, to delays in a port that may disrupt the flow of goods over half a continent. Increased demand and the increasing likelihood of congestion will intensify new spatial responses, and thus it appears very likely that new spatial flows and structures will come into being. Pavement and bridges in poor condition directly impact the lives of ordinary citizens by increasing wear and tear on vehicles, driving up repair costs, inflating travel times, and sometimes introducing new safety concerns. Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Chapter 10 – Challenges for Transport Geography, 10.1 – Improving Transport Infrastructure, 7. First are a series of questions surrounding how to provide solutions. Thus far, 2,200 earmarks worth approximately $1.8 billion have been repurposed. Each event produces a spatial response, from the car driver searching for an alternative route to the shipper who selects a different mode or point of entry for subsequent shipments. Not only do these delays increase the costs—the cost of capital and labor can both increase substantially over many years—but by alleviating the uncertainty that permits will eventually be issued, the Department hopes to make projects more attractive to private investors. The President has made clear that modernizing our country’s crumbling infrastructure, including our Nation’s highways and bridges, is one of his top priorities. Although India has a large and diverse transport sector with its own share of challenges, they can be overcome by energy-efficient technologies and customer-focussed approach To date, five States—California, Texas, Florida, Utah, and Ohio—have assumed NEPA responsibilities. The Department is already taking steps to improve our nation’s infrastructure by implementing the FAST Act, which Congress passed in 2015. "Infrastructure investments can also help improve peace and security by enabling, sustaining and enhancing societal living conditions" Infrastructure investments can also help improve peace and security by enabling, sustaining and enhancing societal living conditions and the welfare of people in developing countries. DOT is not the only federal entity involved, and the FAST Act is not the only statute that directs this process government-wide. A major question confronting all countries around the world is how to finance the construction and maintenance of transport infrastructures. Infrastructure is the physical undergirding of any society, and a country’s infrastructure plays a large role in determining its long-term economic and social trajectory. Last month, the Department issued a Notice of Funding Opportunity (NOFO) for the second round of competitive grants in the Advanced Transportation and Congestion Management Technologies Deployment (ATCMTD) Program. State DOTs that fail to meet or make significant progress toward meeting their safety targets will be required to direct a larger share of their highway spending toward HSIP projects. A high-quality infrastructure investment should have positive economic value that can stimulate job creation, enhance foreign direct investment, and improve productivity and tax revenue in the area in the end. As you may know, trucks transport the majority of U.S. freight, so keeping our roads and bridges in good condition is critical to our country’s competitiveness. There are also more than 450,000 miles of roads that are not actually located on Federal lands but provide access to Federal lands. The first part of the inventory (i.e., the first column in Table 4-1), entails the objectives, goals, aims, or vision that stakeholders set for the system. This material (including graphics) can freely be used for educational purposes such as classroom presentations. The FAST Act authorized the Department to consolidate the TIFIA program into the Surface Transportation and Innovative Finance Bureau, also referred to as the Build America Bureau, along with the Railroad Rehabilitation & Improvement Financing (RRIF) program, the Private Activity Bonds (PABs) program, and the National Surface Transportation and Highway Projects (NSHSP) program. Comparatively, the American Interstate highway system is nearing a phase in its life cycle. Such low density, space extensive patterns are pushing the traffic congestion ever further out and make it very difficult for other higher-capacity modes to compete. An FHWA rule finalized last year implements this statutory requirement, explains the form and content for the resulting plans, and establishes FHWA’s oversight role. However, transport policy and planning require a broader perspective, one that considers different goals and alternatives, responds to different mobility needs, and seeks ways to manage demand. The real estate value of the footprint is often a determining factor in the incentive to re-purpose transportation infrastructure since it is competing with other uses. The program invests in major research initiatives, develops and tests the underlying technology and applications, and provides deployment support, including technology transfer and training. 6. For China, the last two decades have seen an impressive level of highway construction with the setting of a national highway network, the longest in the world. Each of these improvements enables infrastructure to operate more efficiently, to better support future economic growth and to improve the lives of everyday Americans. Chairman Barrasso, Ranking Member Carper, and Members of the Committee, thank you for the opportunity to testify on the state of our highway and bridge infrastructure. Specific topics include maritime transport systems, global supply chains, gateways and transport corridors. Fifty-five percent of all public road miles are locally-owned rural roads. Elaine L. Chao, U.S. Secretary of Transportation, Video of this hearing is available on the Senate EPW Committee's hearing page, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology. This essay argues America’s infrastructure choices must respond to economic, demographic, fiscal, and environmental changes if they are to … The share of bridges on the NHS classified as structurally deficient also improved over the same period, dropping from 5.9 percent to 4.5 percent. create an infrastructure strategy for the entire country; improve the way it uses cost benefit analysis and develop evidence for finance options; establish a Commission for Public Engagement to involve local communities in major projects; give the National Infrastructure Commission greater independence. However, traffic concentration is already producing capacity problems in many of these gateways, particularly in accessing their hinterlands. 1.1 Billion for mobility. If people of a nation are not being fairly treated by those in authority over them, the entire structure (from the citizens to the president) will fail to reach any form of prosperity because peo… Roads should receive special treatment, he continued, as the failure to expand and improve the transportation infrastructure resulted in poor access to neighbouring countries. On the funding side, the Highway Trust Fund is projected to have enough cash to cover expenditures through Fiscal Year 2020, the final year of the FAST Act authorization. Congestion is not limited to urban traffic. When weighted by vehicles miles traveled, the decrease in acceptable ride quality went from 85.3 percent to 83.3 percent, which leads to the conclusion that ride quality on less-traveled Federal-aid highways has significantly declined since 2002. The expected growth of mobility demands is likely to have major impacts on the nature and form of the future transport industry. The FAST Act also continued the Emergency Relief program, a special program from the Highway Trust Fund, which provides funds for emergency and permanent repairs on Federal-aid highways and roads, tribal transportation facilities, and roads on Federal lands that have suffered serious damage as a result of natural disasters or failure from an external cause. Our country’s vast network of highways and bridges connect our communities and support our economy. By optimizing the infrastructure (The Better Use programme) the government wants to: Make it more attractive to travel outside the rush hour; Improve the connection between motorways, railways and waterways. The causes of congestion are well understood, even if the solutions are not. create new categorical exclusion (CE) actions to increase the percentage of projects that can clear NEPA review without lengthy and costly processes, and to provide States with templates to complete them; promote the option of a combined Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) and Record of Decision (ROD) documentation, allowing a quicker resolution to the NEPA process; establish time limits for litigation challenging an environmental review; and. Nothing can replace the loss of a loved one, but quantifying the economic and societal costs of motor vehicle crashes demonstrate even further the importance of investing in highway safety and achieving a better safety record on U.S. highways. A classroom in Godineşti in Gorj county, Romania. 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE For linear infrastructures such as canals, rail lines, and roads, the right of way can be kept and used by another transport mode. – Ports, a… To promote flexibility, States also have the option to assume only environmental approvals for projects that are eligible for categorical exclusions (CEs) under the CE Assignment Program. Even if transport infrastructure can be built and expanded in phases, most private enterprises cannot take a long-term perspective because they need to cover their expenses and recover their capital investments over short time periods. Building infrastructure can help. With respect to implementing the FAST Act, the Department has already begun accelerating the environmental review and permitting process for new projects, which can be too cumbersome, lengthy, and delay the start of new projects. Introduction to Infrastructure: The infrastructure is important for faster economic growth and alleviation of poverty in the country. – Telephone cables and mobile phone towers. Running from coast to coast, through beautiful rural landscapes and great cities, the National Highway System (NHS) is comprised of 223,257 miles of road, which is approximately five percent of the total mileage in our country. Bringing our existing infrastructure into a state of good repair will not only make our roads and bridges safer,  but will also save travelers and shippers time and money. Meanwhile, the country’s international rank in overall infrastructure quality jumped from 25th to 12th place out of 138 countries, according to the World Economic Forum. This underlines that transportation infrastructure in remote or low-density areas is often abandoned at the end of its life cycle. Furthermore, demand is growing consistently, so that the practicality of this solution may be questioned. This creates opportunities for recreational travel and tourism, protection and enhancement of resources, and sustained economic development in both rural and urban areas. Public infrastructure spending is a popular policy tool intended to boost the economy, but it may only be effective in certain circumstances. The 7.2 percent increase in fatalities from 2014 to 2015 ended a five-decade trend of declining fatalities. Thus far, AID has funded 62 projects in 34 States, totaling $44.4 million. Beginning this summer, States and metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) will set data-driven annual safety performance targets for the first time, which will help guide their investment decision-making. There are two primary reasons for this assertion. I welcome the opportunity to work closely with you on these issues of critical importance to our country’s infrastructure, so our economy can continue to grow and create good jobs for America’s working families. 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