advertising theories and models

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Created by Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen in the late 1960s, the Theory of Reasoned Action centers its analysis on the importance of pre-existing attitudes in the decision-making process. Media exposure schedule. Perloff, R.M. To provide examples from just two of the eight basic models: brand recall/low involvement/informational campaigns are best suited to TV, radio, or newspapers; whereas brand recognition/high involvement/transformational campaigns are best suited to TV, magazines, outdoor. Likability is mainly relevant to the low involvement/transformational motel, where everything about the ad must be likable, including the presenter. In this last section of Part A of the checklist, the manager is asked to specify the target audience decision-maker's current rate of behavior in terms of frequency and volume, as well as the future target rate desired as an action objective for the advertising. [Smith and Swinyard (1982) attempt to address the low involvement trial induction phenomenon with their concept of lower order and higher order beliefs. It applies when the advertising must overcome a barrier to purchase resulting from the remainder of the marketing mix. and J.T. Brand benefit beliefs are also more appropriately measured on the "softer" semantic differential type of rating scales, anchored by "image adjectives" than on Likert-type agree-disagree scales. In order for advertising communication to be successful, the prospective buyers in the target audience must: (1) be exposed to an ad or series of ads in a campaign, via media, (2) process the elements of each at in the intended manner so that the advertising results in (3) communication effects, connected to the brand, which in appropriate circumstances produce (4) action, such as purchase of the brand. A particular advertising campaign rarely addresses more than one target audience. All advertising campaigns are aimed at maintaining brand awareness (if not to increase it) and at maintaining brand attitude (if not to change it). Although it may be contended that the two dimensions that form them are continual, thus rendering the classification artificially extreme, in practice it is comparatively easy to determine, especially through research, whether most of the target audience regards the brand purchase decision as within the realm of "try-it-and-see" (low involvement) or whether they would have to be convinced first before buying (high involvement). Our approach utilizes five advertising communication effects (see Table 1 for definitions). For example, Coca-Cola probably does not have to address the cola category need in advertising Coke; whereas in advertising for Diet Coke, the category need for diet cola may require reminding, or selling, the other two options in the checklist. Petty, R.E. (1983), "Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion: Application to Advertising," in L. Percy and A.G. Woodside, eds., Advertising and Consumer Psychology, Lexington, MA:Lexington, 3-23. Brand attitude is conceptualized as a summary belief (an overall evaluation) linking the brand to a motivation. The Marketing Mix The 4P’s of the Marketing Mix, first constructed by E J McCarthy 1960, consisted of Product, Price, Place and Promotion. Following the low involvement route to persuasion demonstrated by Petty and Cacioppo (1979) and summarized by Petty and Cacioppo (1983), extraneous elements of the message such as executional likability assume much greater weight in low involvement attitude formation and change than they do in high involvement attitude formation and change. Roloff and G.R. If so, it is pointless to try to measure purchase intention prior to the event. The brand attitude strategy classification produces four fundamental advertising communication models which, when combined with the two brand awareness alternatives described earlier, produce a total of eight models. Woodside, eds., Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Target Audience Action Objectives (Buyer) Step A-1: Target Audience. (A better term for the latter would be communication effect-defined, since it is not only attitude that determines action, as we shall see in the next section.) Example: A dentist may be employed in an ad that advocates and encourages the public to use a particular toothbrush or a toothpaste advertisement because he uses the same. It is therefore meaningful to regard both brand awareness and brand attitude as universal communication objectives.] and W.R. Swinyard (1982), "Information Response Models: An Integrated Approach," Journal of Marketing, 46 (Winter), 81-93. An overall brand attitude measure is usually appropriate for high involvement-transformational models; but it is unrealistic to expect low involvement-transformational advertising to produce an immediate attitude because of the low involvement, virtually subconscious way in which these ads operate, and thus an overall brand attitude measure is omitted in this case. THE FIVE BASIC COMMUNICATION EFFECTS DEFINED. It should be noted that these motivations are not Just "benefits" but rather underlying energizing mechanisms of human action to which benefits contribute in a secondary manner. Janis, and H.H. Key Difference – Model vs Theory Models and theories have to be understood as two forms used in comprehending phenomena, and between which some differences can be identified. Step A-1: Target Audience. For diagnostic measurement of brand benefit beliefs, Likert-type (agree-disagree) scales are recommended, because the consumer must agree that the brand provides the benefit; note, however, the 0-1 measures recommended if the model is low involvement-informational. Brand recognition is a much easier response to learn than brand recall. The other brand recall tactics are explained further in Rossiter and Percy (1983) where it is shown that personal reference increases brand recall by personalizing the association; that bizarre executions are a very effective associative vehicle as long as they do not detract from the brand's "image"; and that jingles, if they catch on with the target audience and elicit spontaneous rehearsal, are a very effective mnemonic device for increasing brand recall because music offers greater opportunity of unique encoding than words heard o; read in cows unaccompanied by music. [Preston (1982) has made a heroic effort in proposing an advertising communication model that attempts to integrate most of the major syndicated measures. If you can wrap your head around that, then the rest of this will be a breeze. A target audience for advertising may be drawn from people within a market segment or across market segments. These theories or models attempt to explain and describe, at the individual buyer or consumer level, the process by which advertising communicates with and effectively persuades individuals to take action. Most were synthesized from a thorough reading of various advertising sources, although there is a good deal of original speculation. Mercedes-Benz automobiles, for example, are purchased primarily because of social approval motivation, but their ads provide plenty of performance information with which the prospective buyer can rationalize the brand choice. It’s been observed by some theorists that people usually have the desire of becoming others, especially when the other person is famous, beautiful or powerful. Lavidge, R.J. and G.A. Similarly, an individual may have the category need and experience no barriers to purchase facilitation, but make an "impulse" selection on the brand wherein brand awareness, brand attitude, and brand purchase intention are created by point-of-purchase advertising at the last minute. Including emotional descriptions in the advertising communication model used for a brand makes explicit an aspect of advertising effectiveness that is almost always neglected by managers who focus only on approving written copy. The presentation and message of most ads were found to encompass the anti-authoritarian hippie-culture, which had always been planned and distributed by huge corporations persuading the status quo and capital interests. As indicated in Figure 3, brand purchase decisions in some product categories tend to involve so little economic and psychosocial risk that it is meaningful to speak of a "product" as being low involvement. The 7 P's of the Marketing Mix. Low involvement/transformational campaigns also demand high effective frequency (Wells 1981) to generate and maintain brand attitude or "image.". One is the cue to be used to elicit recall; this should correspond with the category need that prompts brand recall in the real world, and it depends on how consumers define the category and not necessarily on how the marketer defines it. Returning now to the steps in the checklist, there is another frequently used tactic or set of elements that affects processing -- the use of a presenter. In our approach, these are not just nominal distinctions. If a more specifically tailored model is desired, the eight basic models together with the strategy checklist should be of considerable assistance in indicating the questions to be answered in designing the inputs for a specialized model. Schlinger, M.J. and L. Green (1980), "Art-work Storyboards Versus Finished Commercials," Journal of Advertising Research, 20 (December), 19-23. Although both theories and models are used, these two are different from … Understanding the target market helps to create an effective message and helps to determine the appropriate advertising … Hierarchical models have dominated advertising theory, and, of these models, the AIDA model is one of the most widely applied. Presenters should be considered to "boost: communication effects when a "standard" advertising execution falls short of attaining the communication objectives. Presenters must be selected so that their salient personal characteristics are those which amplify audience processing of elements relevant to the particular communication model through which the ad is designed to operate. The five communication effects may appear to resemble and perhaps to extend the notion of a hierarchy-of-effects, and it would be surprising if they didn't, given the widely acclaimed face validity of the hierarchy notion. In our approach, processing includes: (1) attention to all elements of the advertisement relevant to respective communication objectives; (2) physiological responses to emotional elements of advertisements pertaining to the motivation portrayal; (3) rote (often subconscious) learning of associations between elements pertaining to brand awareness and, if applicable, low involvement brand attitude; and (4) cognitive acceptance of elements pertaining to, again when applicable, high involvement brand attitude, category need, induced brand intention, and purchase facilitation. Strong and Weak Theories of Advertising Should We Ban Alcohol Adverts? Ehrenberg, A.S.C. For example, an informational advertisement addressing the problem removal motivation might employ the sequence: disappointment + hope + relief. (1980), "Message-Evoked Thoughts: Persuasion Research Using Thought Verbalizations," Journal of Consumer Research, 7 (September), 151-175. Krugman's 1972 point that the first exposure of a fleeting broadcast ad allows only a "What is it?" Processing is not exclusively cognitive, however. (1982), "The Effects of Television Commercial Repetition on Cognitive Responses and Message Acceptance," Journal of Consumer Research, 9 (June), 56-65. Shimp, T.A. The brand awareness objective with brand recognition models is to get the package recognized in a typical competing package display setting. These are of course the affective and cognitive components of attitude. and Cacioppo, J.T. Presenters should be considered to "boost: communication effects when a "standard" advertising execution falls short of attaining the communication objectives. Advertising communication models are theories about "how advertising works." Inc. Nelson, P.E. Several theories have emerged in advertising both to guide and show how advertising work. Discontinuous innovations (Robertson 1971) invariably have to "sell" the category need in their advertising; new brand entries in a well known category may have to remind the target audience of the category to which the brand is aspiring; but established brands rarely have to address category need unless, as Campbell's Soup did recently, they are trying to stimulate category sales of which they reap a large share. Several theories have emerged in advertising both to guide and show how advertising work. Academic definitions tend to follow the Fishbein type of definition (e.g., Fishbein and Ajzen 1975) in which attitude is conceptualized as overall affect toward the act of buying the brand. In our checklist the manager is asked to nominate the decision-maker by role and by action (Webster and Wind 1972) as to whether the target audience individual should: propose the brand for consideration (initiator), recommend it (influencer), make the final decision (decider), order or buy it (purchaser), or use or consumer it (user). These do not depend on advertising communication models and are not discussed here IMPLICATIONS FOR AD TESTING The eight advertising communication models have crucial implications for ad testing. Brand purchase intention is an optional communication objective. An advertising communication model should incorporate all four steps. Presenters must be selected so that their salient personal characteristics are those which amplify audience processing of elements relevant to the particular communication model through which the ad is designed to operate. 1980) such as, "You can 't beat Crest for fighting cavities" (but you can equal it), and on the visual side, perceptually extreme claims are often made effectively by implication rather than explicitly and may avoid legal challenge (Rossiter and Percy 1981).]. and should only be used when other considerations strongly dictate use of the medium. In the checklist, as with all the communication effects, the manager is asked to mike this decision explicitly. Market segments are based on the other "4 P's" in the marketing mix, such as product segments for different end uses, price segments for high and low priced brands, geographic markets for distribution, or customer sales potential segments for personal selling. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF ADVERTISING COMMUNICATION MODELS, A complete account of the overall advertising process requires at least six steps (Figure 1). Both of … The main brand recognition tactic is to emphasize the package and the name visually in the advertising. Ads are effective when steered with other media and setting which they are … For instance, R-C Cola brand loyals may predominantly plan to buy that brand, by recall; whereas R-C Cola brand switchers may predominantly notice it at the point-of-purchase as one of the alternative cola brands that they switch between, by recognition. Step A-2: Decision-Maker. Explore . Ehrenburg Model (1997) Awareness Trial Reinforcement Nudging Let the customer know you exist (Doesn’t have to be just advertising… Four fundamental models with a total of eight paired variations are identified. Many people have their own definition on what this phrase means. The other three communication effects are optional as objectives. A transformational advertisement addressing the sensory gratification motivation might simply nominate elation as the emotion or "tone" to be portrayed. However, it is not yet reasonable to refer to these as alternative advertising communication models, since these decisions mainly refer to alternative targets of the communication rather than to alternative communication processes. Packard declared that advertising is threatening since it uses psychology to form emotionally loaded messages and as the messages are hidden, the viewer’s critical resilience is dodged and minimized. It is straightforward to do this, especially if the points are categorized in terms of the communication objectives they are intended to address. MacKenzie (1981), "Construction of a Diagnostic Cognitive Response Model for Use in Commercial Pretesting," University of California, Los Angeles, Graduate School of Management, working paper no. Fennell, G. (1978), "Consumers Perceptions of the Product-Use Situation," Journal of Marketing, 42 (April), 38-47. Many advertising agencies and their client companies continue to rely blindly on top-of-mind brand recall, when many brands are in fact chosen by brand recognition at the point-of-purchase, not by recall prior to the purchase situation. To do so would be requiring too much of what should be a tailored communication effort. Vaughn, R. (1981), "Row Advertising Works: A Planning Model," Journal of Advertising Research, 20 (October), 27-33. For example, Coca-Cola probably does not have to address the cola category need in advertising Coke; whereas in advertising for Diet Coke, the category need for diet cola may require reminding, or selling, the other two options in the checklist. It should be noted that the checklist skips the attention phase of processing, as this would be very tedious to complete and is implicit in the points listed in the remaining three steps of processing. However, what goes into the framework must be based on an advertising communication model, of which we will now outline the main alternatives. Involvement is categorized according to the economic theory developed by Nelson (1970), which classifies the brand purchase decision as either "low involvement"Or "high involvement" (search/conviction required). Again it should be emphasized that although research may not be available for all these inputs, they will be tacitly assumed anyway in the process of advertising creation. Accordingly, the cognitive tactics for the high involvement models (especially the high involvement/informational model) are much more detailed than for the low involvement models. In the succeeding sections of the article, we explain how the checklist is used to develop an advertising communication model suited to particular advertising situations. (1970),"Information and Consumer Behavior," Journal of Political Economy, 78 (March/April), 311-329. In advertising terms, to borrow psychologist George Mandler's words (1979), the crux of the attitudinal approach is "heat" and "light." In various disciplines, both in the social and natural sciences, various models and theories are being used to understand phenomena. Segmenting consumer markets . Effective frequency (e.g., Naples 1979) is based on the estimated minimum number of times an individual target audience member must be exposed -- within a purchase cycle -- in order to induce purchase of the brand (see D-2). In this last section of Part A of the checklist, the manager is asked to specify the target audience decision-maker's current rate of behavior in terms of frequency and volume, as well as the future target rate desired as an action objective for the advertising. Ads touch our values, emotions, and the underlying beliefs. Brand recognition is not correlated with brand recall (Thorson and Rothschild 1983) and so the substitute use of a brand recall measure for a brand recognition objective is inappropriate and misleading. However, high involvement/transformational advertising, e.g., for vacation packages, may also employ hard-sell to try to stimulate immediate intentions. Fishbein, M. and I. Ajzen (1975), Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research, Reading, MA; Addison-Wesley. Transformational ads depend on production values for contributing to the positively derived brand attitude, so a transformational ad should be tested in a version as close to the finished ad as possible. For example, you see the Fab package and remember that you need detergent.) Furthermore, an explicit listing of emotions to be portrayed makes the task of ad testing easier because appropriate emotional adjectives can then be selected with which to gauge audience reactions to the ad. 80-2. Transformational strategies, in contrast, apply when the brand is linked to one of the positively originated motivations: sensory gratification, intellectual stimulation, or social approval. These two areas would seem to be obvious stable‐mates, yet an overview of the literature identifies very little commonality. SteP B-3: Brand Attitude. Roloff and G.R. Adequate logical support for perceived brand delivery on the motivation. A second distinction, also related to the informational-transformational advertising, is that in transformational advertising, it is essential that the target audience like the ad itself, regardless of its opinion of the brand. Sheth (1969), The TheorY of Buyer Behavior, New York, Wiley. Secondly, four fundamental brand attitude strategies are described which, together with two prior types of brand awareness alternatives, produces a total of eight basic advertising communication models. Please see our Marketing Theories - SWOT Analysis post for a full explanation. Three to four exposures of the test commercials represent a more valid simulation of real world conditions than just one or two exposures. The main decision concerning the brand awareness objective (and thus the brand awareness component of the advertising communication model) is whether the target audience predominantly enters the brand purchase decision via brand recall or brand recognition. Harris, R.J., T.M. Bauer, R.A. (1967), "Source Effect and Persuasibility: A New Look," in Risk Taking and Information Handling in Consumer Behavior, D.F. If these a priori tactical recommendations stimulate research to test or challenge them, they will have served their present purpose.] A fourth distinction in the models relates to the exposure schedule for different types of advertising (Wells 1981). Advertising, Public relations, Marketing and Consumer Behavior Business Communication Communication / General Communication Barriers Communication in Practice Communication Models … The communication content of the advertising will differ according to the decision-maker target, e.g., men's shirts such as Hathaway being advertised to women as influencers, or children's products such as Fisher-Price toys being advertised to parents as deciders. We do not, however, suggest that the hard-sell and soft-sell options represent a sufficient conceptual difference to warrant these being designated as separate advertising communication models. Balanced Scorecard. Brand attitude strategies can be classified as relying primarily on either an "informational" (reason why) motivation or a "transformational" (brand-user image) motivation. The whole series of steps should be regarded as a potentially inter-looping mental heterarchy, punctuated by occasional behavioral acts such as purchase. Click a link above to be taken to a full blog on the marketing model/theory of your choice. The involvement classification applies to a particular brand, for a particular target audience. Step D-1: Media Selection. Traditionally, marketing theories emerged from managerial experience and/or scholarly activity in marketing and related disciplines (e.g., economics). Returning now to the steps in the checklist, there is another frequently used tactic or set of elements that affects processing -- the use of a presenter. Involvement, and thus the cognitive classification of brand attitude, must be determined for the brand and for the particular target audience. It should be noted that the checklist skips the attention phase of processing, as this would be very tedious to complete and is implicit in the points listed in the remaining three steps of processing. Ellerman, and M.W. However, as Wyer (1974) has argued, overall affect is simply one class of beliefs about the brand -- that "the brand (or the act of purchasing the brand) is likable." There is no hierarchical necessity although the communication effects may in some cases be experienced at full strength in the numerical order shown. Advertising, Theories, Models, Communication Identifiers URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-846 Local ID: 2082/1206 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-846 DiVA, id: diva2:238064 Uppsok Social and Behavioural Science, Law. Percy, L. and J.R. Rossiter (1980), Advertising StrategY: A Communication Theory Approach, New York: Praeger. The article is an attempt to understand what exactly digital marketing … Claims in low involvement advertising have to be learned, rather than fully believed and accepted, and a more extreme claim will be more likely attended to and learned, and more likely to induce trial to test the claim via usage experience. C. Executional Processing (Ad) Communication models can, if desired, cease detailed exposition with the establishment of communication objectives. Moreover, Preston's is yet another singular model and, as we have seen, singular models cannot account for the different ways in which advertising works.]. Ellerman, and M.W. Firstly, a general structure of the necessary components of an advertising communication model is provided. Heuristics, or mental shortcuts we use to help us make decisions, are frequently used in marketing to influence our decision-making and buying behaviors. Indeed, without brand awareness being experienced at some point prior to the purchase decision, the brand cannot be bought. Likability is mainly relevant to the low involvement/transformational motel, where everything about the ad must be likable, including the presenter. The elaboration-likelihood model proposed by Richard E. Petty and John T. Cacioppo in 1986 is an example of self-persuasion theory. In a marketing-driven company, all decisions are made based on a marketing philosophy, and marketing … SWOT Analysis. In order to take action such as purchase of a brand, a target audience individual must: (1) have the category need, i.e., be "in the market" for the product class; (2) be aware of the brand as an option within the class; (3) have at least a tentatively favorable brand attitude toward it; (4) intend to buy it, although this intention may be quite latent or subconscious until the individual is in the purchase situation; and (5) experience no barriers to purchase facilitation, such as distribution unavailability or inability to meet the price or pricing terms. The four brand attitude strategy "quadrants" are postulated to represent functionally distinct models. Steiner (1961), "A Model for Predictive Measurements of Advertising Effectiveness," Journal of Marketing, 25 (October), 59-62. The checklist does provide an option of "both," to be selected only when a substantial proportion of the target audience is known or judged to use the alternative method. As such, they dictate the overall media strategy of a campaign while leaving tactical details and specific considerations to the media specialists. Cacioppo (1981), "Attitude and Attitude Change," Annual Review of Psychology, 32, 357-404. However, managers will sometimes establish a primary target audience, to whom the communication content is mainly tailored, and one or more secondary target audiences, who will be affected but to a lesser degree. 4S Web Marketing Mix Constantinides. Step D-1: Media Selection. Nor, except in the rare case of a new brand being launched into a virtual mental vacuum, is there any necessity for the four overall steps themselves to form a hierarchy, even though they are shown this way for convenience (Figure 1 earlier). The 7 P's of the Marketing Mix . Segments of One . ADVERTISING TACTICS FOR THE FOUR BRAND ATTITUDE STRATEGIES. Academic definitions tend to follow the Fishbein type of definition (e.g., Fishbein and Ajzen 1975) in which attitude is conceptualized as overall affect toward the act of buying the brand. Step C-2: Points to be Learned. Ryan Elder, Brigham Young University, USA, Norah Awad, Hongik University [As usual we use the term "brand" in a broad sense to include any type of product or service that the advertising is designed to promote. (1982), Advertising and Communication Management, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. This now includes Radio, mobile, … Krugman's 1972 point that the first exposure of a fleeting broadcast ad allows only a "What is it?" Perch, C.S. (1974), "Repetitive Advertising and the Consumer," Journal of Advertising Research, 14 (April), 25-34. 2, pp. 7, No. 80-2. and Cacioppo, J.T. MARKETING THEORIES, MODELS AND GENERAL ISSUES.

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